Setting goals is the first step in turning the invisible into the visible.
– Tony Robbins
Description of the principle
To maintain children’s self-efficacy, commitment and motivation during a class writing project, teachers should ensure that children know the distant goal for the project, that is to say the future audience and purpose for the writing. The class, as a community, should have a say in setting the product goals for the project. This is what will they have to do to ensure their writing is successful and meaningful. Setting shorter-term process goals (e.g. generating an idea/planning/drafting/revising/editing/publishing) benefits learners in terms of cognitive load, focus, motivation and achievement; for example, ‘You have two days left to complete your draft’. However, once experienced enough, children should be able to use their own writing process and only need the final deadline for completing the project; for example ‘You have eight more writing sessions before these need to be ready for publication’.
What Writing For Pleasure teachers do
- To maintain children’s commitment and motivation during a class writing project, teachers ensure that their classes understand the ‘distant goal’ for the project, that is to say, its audience and purpose.
- The class, as a community, also have a say in setting the ‘product goals’ for their project. This takes place in the form of discussions as to what they will have to do, and what it is writers do, to ensure their writing is successful and meaningful in the context of the project’s aims.
- The teachers often share a piece of their own writing, in keeping with the project, to initiate a discussion about writing decisions. The children then use the outcomes of these discussions as an aid to setting product goals for their own writing. The product goals are similar to success criteria, but importantly they also include more overarching goals linked directly to purpose and audience.
- Product goals are put on display and are repeatedly referred to by the children and the teachers throughout the class writing project.
- Teachers set loose ‘process goals’ for writing time to help the class generally stay on track, without forcing children to keep to a certain pace or a specific writing process.
Reviewing your practice: questions to consider
- Do you see writing as mastery through repeated practice rather than performance-oriented and therefore provide children with space and opportunity to develop their writing over time?
- Do you set a class process-oriented writing goal for the lesson(s)?
- Do you ensure that whole-class writing goals relate to purpose and audience and link directly to the class’ learning needs?
- Do you ensure the class’ writing goals are well known and/or on display?
- Do you involve the children in setting whole class learning goal(s)?
- Do you work with children to set their own individual writing goals?
- Do you allow children to choose their own social and writing goals for their personal writing projects?
- Ensure children know what the class’ writing goals are, how they can achieve them and what resources or strategies are available to help them.
Examples from the classroom
Let’s make a ‘Guess Who?’ book! Writing character descriptions in Year Two
This chapter introduces the setting of writing goals within the context of a community of writers, including setting distant, product, and process goals. The concept of distant goals is explained, including its powerful relationship with establishing purpose and audience for writing and the teaching of genre and textual features. The setting of product goals follows, with the authors again making the link between the collaborative setting of product goals alongside exploration of the field, tenor, and mode of genre teaching. Next, the authors examine how teachers and children set process goals (writing deadlines) on their way towards publication and performance. The authors share ways in which teachers and children can work collaboratively to set writing goals for class writing projects. The chapter concludes with examples of effective practice taken from the classrooms of high-performing Writing For Pleasure teachers.
This chapter gives practical advice on how teachers can manage the issues of marking writing and setting targets. It gives suggestions taken from real classroom practice. It discusses how pupil conferencing can be a powerful mode in which to improve children’s sense of self-efficacy and gives a rationale for providing written feedback whilst children are still in the process of producing their texts. It shows how teachers can decrease their workload whilst still giving children high-quality support. This chapter provides advice on how to mark the compositional and transcriptional aspects of children’s manuscripts, adapting the marking according to where children are in the writing process. It explains how teachers can set writing targets and future writing goals in collaboration with children and how formative feedback such as marking and target setting can inform future planning and encourage efficient and effective responsive teaching.
Suggested further reading
- Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260–267.
- Andrade, H., Du, Y., Wang, X., (2008) Putting rubrics to the test: The effect of a model, criteria generation, and rubric-referenced self-assessment on elementary school students’ writing Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice 27,(2), 3-13
- Covington, M. V. (2000). Goal theory, motivation, and school achievement: An integrative review. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 171–200.
- Garrett, L., Moltzen, R., (2011) Writing because I want to, not because I have to: Young gifted writers’ perspectives on the factors that “matter” in developing expertise In English Teaching: Practice and Critique pp.165-180
- Hmelo-Silver, C., Duncan, R., & Chinn, C. (2007). Scaffolding and achievement in problem-based and inquiry learning: A response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 99–107.
- Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (1991). Self-regulation through goal setting. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 212–247
- Reutzel, D. R. (2007). Organizing effective literacy instruction: Differentiating instruction to meet the needs of all children. In L. B. Gambrell, L. M. Morrow, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (pp. 313–434). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
- Schunk, D. H. (1990). Goal setting and self-efficacy during self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 25, 71-86
- Schunk, D. H. (1996). Goal and self-evaluative influences during children’s cognitive skill learning. American Educational Research Journal, 33(2), 359–382.
- Schunk, D. H., & Swartz, C. W. (1993). Goals and progress feedback: Effects on self-efficacy and writing achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18(3), 337–354.
- Seijts, G. H., Latham, G. P., Tasa, K., & Latham, B. W. (2004). Goal setting and goal orientation: An integration of two different yet related literatures. Academy of Management Journal, 47(2), 227–239.
- Timperley, H. & Parr, J., (2009) What is this lesson about? Instructional processes and student understandings in writing classrooms In The Curriculum Journal, 20:1, 43-60
- Vanderburg, R., (2006) Reviewing Research on Teaching Writing Based on Vygotsky’s Theories: What We Can Learn In Reading & Writing Quarterly, 22:4, 375-393
- Wray, D., Beard, R., Raban, B., Hall, N., Bloom, W., Robinson, A., Potter, F., Sands, H., Yates, I., (1988) Developing Children’s Writing Leamington Spa: Scholastic
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